Economic activity and human needs


Economic problem

           The economic problem, or what they universally termed the economic problem, has human and natural causes: the most important of which is the scarcity of resources and a large number of needs, or the lack of incomes. And the increase in expenditures, or what “Thomas Malthus” called the imbalance between the population and the amount of resources sufficient to secure their lives. It is in this sense a problem the individual, the family, the state, and thus the problem of the world. Global resources do not cover the needs of more than three to five billion people, especially since they not distributed regionally, internationally. And continentally according to the population, and that some of their income – as human causes, is spent on wars and advanced weapons, in building space ships, factories of oppression and destruction, and in what is harmful such as drugs, instead of spending on what pleases humanity. In addition, does not make it miserable: it is more difficult to tamper with the wealth of nations and deviate from the power of money, and the authority of knowledge from the ways of the guided. The Qur’an denounced such behavior. And that is in the Almighty’s saying: “ Do you adopt a sign with every rent, tampering with and taking factories so that you may be immortal, and when you become violent, you are tyrannical, so fear God and obey and fear Him who has provided you with what you know. 

         In addition, if the world’s resources covered all its needs, or  justly distributed among its inhabitants, there would be no famine, unemployment, and foreign debts… Even the industrialized countries’ resources do not cover relatively all their needs. This prompted it to cooperate, unite, and confront the millions of unemployed people in its peoples. Unemployment is a form of material scarcity and many needs. A statement clarified that the economic problem is general and global, namely the deficit in the budgets of America and the Soviet Union prior to its dissolution. The developed countries were preoccupied with their problems, united around their interests, and as a result of their bloc, the global economy closed and the international monetary system was above it in their favor at the expense of the third world countries. Although working for the benefit of humanity as a whole, especially ensuring food security is the responsibility of man as a race. In addition, his honesty towards God’s succession to him, God created the earth, and wanted it as a place for life, and a source for architecture. And chose him as a tool for building this architecture and working to secure this life not for some, but for everyone and what rides on its back, starting with himself and his dependents, then with the animals he owns.

         God’s will has been common for the movement of the universes to be permanent, and the human being as a living being was singled out with reason and the ability to organize the wheels of life. He could not stand and the movements of the universes are constantly around him… And movement – whatever its kind and source was not for it, could not take place, without a motive, an engine, or a cause, and every movement expresses the reason for its existence and carries the reason for which it was established. Although they differ in quality, they do not differ in response to their physical and moral factors. The birds that the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) said about us: “If you put your trust in God in the right to trust Him, He would have provided you with sustenance, just as he provides for the birds, they become sacks and go in feathers. ” They did not retreat into their dens. And complaint about the scarcity of resources and the abundance of needs, but rather in a constant movement, so they search, move, and link in her movement between mornings. And evening expresses in her condition the meaning of reliance on the success of causes, not in abandoning them, so God bless her endeavor, and she deserves to become hungry and go full. And other land and sea animals, looking and moving. And the circumstances or the need that prompted her to search for the sources of her strength and to secure her life, are the same ones that compelled man to work and search and struggle with nature in order to extract from her his strength and clothing.

The production, and fixed and circulating capital

The production, Fixed and Circulating Capital

      The production, Fixed and Circulating Capital  
Constant or fixed capital means money that cannot transferred, or that is not lost at the will of profit, such as factories, machines, and production institutions.

The production, Fixed and Circulating Capital

         Production in its present conditions is a process of coordination between certain ratios of the factors of production, upon which the transformation of materials extracted from nature into commodities or goods depends… The coordinator of these factors and the observer of their progress within the institution is the regulator responsible for their phases and the uses associated with them. It is a complex process. It can summarized in three main elements:

        First – work

         The work concerned in this field: The field of production is the sum of the activities and tasks that man undertakes in order to extract or analyze natural materials and transform or re-convert them into commodities or goods that satisfy his needs and respond to his desires. It includes physical and technical work. The process of mining. And the production of steel or steel. For example, does not depend on physical labor only but also depends on the knowledge of chemical developments. And technology that take place when materials melted in the furnace, and the advanced agricultural production process has also gone beyond. The stage of traditional work and depends on the knowledge of agricultural engineering, which guarantees a study of agricultural production processes from a technical point of view. It seems that every positive action aims to obtain a material return, which would place within the framework of human activity in order to produce well.

       The second – Topics

          Production topics are not selectable. In addition, it will develop – just as the means and methods of work develop with the development of production, as manifested in the extraction of oil from stones, and butter from plants… It can be said that it is everything on which effort and work are exercised, and includes in the first place what nature allows from raw materials, unfit For use in its first form, and transforming it into commodities with use or exchange values, is what is expressed in the production process. Thus, it becomes clear that commodities or goods pass before they reach the consumer’s hand in three stages: The extraction of their materials from nature. Convert it exchange it or transfer it to the market. We have deliberately tried to convert materials extracted from nature into commodities, as there are many transformations that not taken into account for the production process, as is seen in the transformation of flour into food, and fruits into juice … unless the production of commodities is thus intended.

        Third – the means

          The means of production are all the things that help the producer, and through which he works to make his projects successful, develop his production, organize, control, and monitor it. Intellectual and material mean… The intellectual adopted in controlling contemporary production include calculation, especially what  related to accounting in order to determine economic efficiency, and from material capital, and it is divided in the contemporary concept, into fixed or fixed capital, and circulating or mobile, as it divided into human capital. In addition, material.

         Constant or fixed capital means money that cannot transferred, or that is not lost at the will of profit, such as factories, machines, and production institutions… They are the properties that give production or income, and their origin remains and depends more on human capital, which is fundamental in modern technology: Strengthened by its strength and weakened by its weakness. It was strong in the industrialized or developed countries and weakened by its weakness in the third world countries. The reason is not only the inability of some of these countries to buy or obtain advanced devices, which monopolized by the industrialized or developed countries. However, it is also in the inability to configure specialized frameworks at their level. You can use it efficiently. Hence, technology monopolized and exported, and made money capital, and money capital did not make it. However, buy it. Which raised the interests of the third world countries, and made them move towards it now.

         In addition  , circulating or mobile capital  , meaning what traded in such as wages, purchase of raw materials, and performance of duties, in order to complete operations, services, and produce goods…and it is the type that comes out of the ownership of its owner when he wants to profit, as it happens in products and commodities. It mainly depends on the use of monetary value or the purchasing power of money. The monetary value or purchasing power derives its strength from the power of resources, or the economic or productive power of any country, and includes in its entirety agriculture, trade, industry, mineral wealth, livestock, fisheries, tourism, stupidity, and various services…, which are considered resources, contribute to the development of production, and the rise in national and national income. From its total strength – or its weakness -, money derives its strength and weakness. It is this fact that produced strong money known as hard currencies, in industrialized or developed countries, and weak in third world countries, and as a result, strong money dominated financial markets and foreign agreements. The power of the global monetary system fell into the hands of the developed monopoly, so it closed in its favor at the expense of developing countries, or those on the path of growth, as was evident in the “debt” of the Third World… This situation poses the problem for the unification of the currency between two countries with different economic power. This may be the reason for the rejection of “Thatcher» during the days she presided over its unification among the European Community, in addition to the fact that unification may harm countries that choose to deal with each country separately… East Germany has benefited from its unification with the West, in exchange for relinquishing its currency, with what He is afraid of the strong dominating the weak. This can explain the position of “Denmark”, which refused to ratify the project of unity among the European Community… As for the weak purchasing power of third world money, there are other reasons.

Economics – Definition and Theoretical


 Definition of economics

 Defining economics in a precise and specific way is not an easy matter due to the overlapping of its concepts, and its connection with human life, with intellectual and social data, temporal and spatial conditions, and material conditions, which sometimes agree and differ at other times. It was natural for definitions to differ, according to different trends, schools, and doctrines of economic and social life…

They defined it as “the science of wealth,” “a science that studies conditions of exchange“a science that studies the activity of man in order to satisfy his needs,” and “ a science that studies the facilitation of rare materials. And the forms of transforming these resources,” and “a science that studies the relationship of individuals to each other, and their relationship to things in Their pursuit of material well-being” and “a science that studies the production, exchange, distribution and consumption” and “a science of the laws that govern wealth” …

Thus, the definitions differed, and each definition has a connotation approaching or moving away from the other. The science of wealth means that the science of economics deals with the issue of financial wealth and does not go beyond it.

A science that studies the conditions of exchange, i.e. focusing on how to exchange surplus production, types of commodities, and various goods, after their production.

A science that studies the activity of man in order to satisfy his need, that is, the search for the most effective practical methods by which a person is able to satisfy his desires and satisfy his needs.

A science that studies the facilitation of scarce resources, and the forms of transferring these resources means trying to overcome the existing problem, between the scarcity of resources. A large number of needs or the lack of income and the multiplication of expenditures, and the search for the most successful ways and the most effective methods that guarantee the transformation of relative scarcity to the level of needs, and the matching between lack of income and the increase in expenses.

A science that studies the relationship of individuals to each other, and their relationship to things in their quest to reach material well-being. This means that economics does not study human activity in isolation from things, or things in isolation from humans, but rather studies the relationship between individuals, then the relationship between them and things in pursuit of reaching to satisfy the desires and satisfy the various material needs. As dictated by the reality of economic activity. The relationship between individual’s lies with work, especially in the field of production, consumption, exchange, and distribution… and between them and things lies in the subject of nature and its raw materials.

A science that studies the production, exchange, distribution, and consumption, meaning that economics studies the conditions of wealth in each of its phases, starting with production as the first phase in which materials are transformed into merchandise usable, then circulation, which is the phase in which goods are exchanged between producers and consumers, then distribution. It is the division of income between the parties contributing to its production, then consumption, which is the form in which needs are satisfied with products.

In addition, the science of the laws that govern wealth means that the science of economics does not mean wealth as much as it means the laws that govern it.


 theoretical economics

It intended to study curricula, projects, methods, programs, theories, laws, and economic ideas, in terms of their concepts, and to indicate the type of links that link them, in order to determine or record what exists and present for study, in order to select what is valid for application. It is possible to summarize its most important concerns in the following areas:
1.      Major economic sectors, including studies related to traditional and modern industry, internal and external trade, food agriculture, which is intended to secure social life, and then commercial, which is intended for profit or export.

2.      General theories, including studies related to the state’s public finances, national income, money, and prices… which are the responsibility of the state through its institutions.

3.      Economic planning, which is concerned with the process of programming, designing, preparing projects, and studying them before entering into their implementation. It is the right and jurisdiction of the state whenever it acquires a national character.

4.      Economic policy, which is concerned with studying the principles, foundations, directions, and choices on which the economic direction of the state based… It varies from sect to sect and from state to state… It is objective and practical if I got a state to self-sufficiency and was able to control the economy in isolation from the International Monetary Fund’s policy, the International Bank for Reconstruction and development referred to it, a policy the European Common Market countries.

5.      National accounting, which is concerned with studying how to “evaluate” production, control it and estimate its results… On this basis, the contemporary economy depends on economic efficiency and the estimation of national income.

6.      The history of economic thought, and deals with economic principles, laws, and theories from the point of view of their historical development, in order to benefit the later from the experience of the previous one. He guided by his success points, avoids his failures. In addition, learns about practical theories of intellectualism, as will be detailed.

Secondly, applied economics
It intended to apply the laws, projects, and programs studied by the theoretical economy while working to use the most effective methods and the best means to ensure the development and development of production… It deals with the economic reality as it is in a country or a group of countries, based on applied economic geography, such as the distribution of resources, their production, and consumption in countries or regions…

It embraces what is expressed as a descriptive economy, which focuses on the national economy in a limited period, as seen in the application of a pentagonal design. It approved by the higher departments in the country. We have presented theoretical economics from applied economics because the theory deals with topics from a theoretical point of view before the applied one deals with them from an applied point of view…